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March 10th is Harriet Tubman Day since 1990.  First suggested Global Holiday for all Women & their Families throughout the world. Women deserves their first HOLIDAY. Why not March 10th?  Congratulations! Harriet Tubman Day Freedom Scholarship 2011 recipient, Mr. Nickolas Ryan Spikes, Tuskegee University. Harriet Tubman welcomes over three-million viewers since its grand opening and counting. Contact: Lucreatia Wilson, Star Hill AME Church, Delaware Underground Railroad tours. (302) 697. 9903.

 General Tubman
 Harriet Tubman Civil War
 Harriet Tubman Home
 Tubman Home Opens
 Del. Nat'l Monument
 Governor Markell (DE)
 Garrett-Tubman Day (pdf)
 Mayor Carey, Dover (DE)
 Dover Eight Escape
 Mayor James Ford
 Thomas  Garrett Day
Lewes, Delaware (pdf)
 Harriet Tubman Plaque, N.Y.
 Booker T. Washington
 Tribute to Harriet Tubman
 Freedom Tour
 Harriet Tubman Museum
 Harriet Tubman
 Delaware Byway
 Harriet Tubman
 Delaware Byway
 Harriet Tubman
 Maryland Byway
 MD. 2013 Centennial (pdf)
 Harriet Tubman Day
 Freedom Scholarship
 Historical Documents
 Photo Gallery
 Harriet Tubman Day
 Edinburgh, Scotland
 Harriet Tubman's Coloring Book
 Evelyn Ross Taylor
 The Dedication of the Harriet
 Tubman Home
 Wilmington Friends Meeting
 Thomas Garrett
 Harriet Tubman's
 Civil War
 Appoquinimink Meeting House
 Camden Meeting House   
 Star hill A.M.E. Church
 Riverfront Park
 Tubman-Garrett  Plaque
 Clearfield Farm
 Charles Blockson
 Kostmayer - H.R. 3863
 Sen. Paul Simon (IL) S. 2809
 Freedom Trail SB 186
 Advisory Committee
 Underground Railroad

 NPS Underground
 Railroad Study

 Congressman Louis Stokes
 H.R. 1635

 Sen. Moseley-Braun- S. 887

 Underground Railroad
 Network To Freedom

 Free For christmas By Lerone
 Bennett, Jr.
 New Statue For Harriet Tubman
 Bridge Named To Honor Tubman
 They Called Her Moses
 Harriet Tubman Banquet:
 Cambridge, MD.
 Charles Nalle
 Heritage Production Co.
 Delaware Trail of Courage
 Tubman Honored,
 Ghana, West Africa
 Remembering Yolanda King

Picture courtesy of Cayuga Museum
(Click picture to enlarge)

Harriet Tubman
"The Conductor"
By Carl A. Pierce
(click picture to enlarge)



In Memory of Harriet Tubman
(click picture to enlarge)


Download Proclamation


City of Fernandina Beach


download proclamation

The White House

Office of the Press Secretary


For Immediate Release March 25, 2013

Presidential Proclamation €“ Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad

National Monument




Harriet Tubman is an American hero. She was born enslaved, liberated herself, and returned to the area of her birth many times to lead family, friends, and other enslaved African Americans north to freedom. Harriet Tubman fought tirelessly for the Union cause, for the rights of enslaved people, for the rights of women, and for the rights of all. She was a leader in the struggle for civil rights who was forever motivated by her love of family and community and by her deep and abiding faith.

Born Araminta Ross in 1822 in Dorchester County, Maryland, on the plantation where her parents were enslaved, she took the name "Harriet" at the time she married John Tubman, a free black man, around 1844. Harriet Tubman lived and worked enslaved in this area from her childhood until she escaped to freedom at age 27 in 1849. She returned to Dorchester County approximately 13 times to free family, friends, and other enslaved African Americans, becoming one of the most prominent "conductors" on the Underground Railroad. In 1859, she purchased a farm in Auburn, New York, and established a home for her family and others, which anchored the remaining years of her life. In the Civil War she supported the Union forces as a scout, spy, and nurse to African-American soldiers on battlefields and later at Fort Monroe, Virginia. After the war, she established the Harriet Tubman Home for the Aged, which institutionalized a pattern of her life -- caring for African Americans in need.

In 1868, the great civil rights leader Frederick Douglass wrote to Harriet Tubman:

I have had the applause of the crowd and the satisfaction that comes of being approved by the multitude, while the most that you have done has been witnessed by a few trembling, scarred, and foot-sore bondmen and women, whom you have led out of the house of bondage, and whose heartfelt "God bless you" has been your only reward. The midnight sky and the silent stars have been the witnesses of your devotion to freedom and of your heroism.

The "midnight sky and the silent stars" and the Dorchester County landscape of Harriet Tubman's homeland remain much as they were in her time there. If she were to return to this area today, Harriet Tubman would recognize it.

It was in the flat, open fields, marsh, and thick woodlands of Dorchester County that Tubman became physically and spiritually strong. Many of the places in which she grew up and worked still remain. Stewart's Canal at the western edge of this historic area was constructed over 20 years by enslaved and free African Americans. This 8-mile long waterway, completed in the 1830s, connected Parsons Creek and Blackwater River with Tobacco Stick Bay (known today as Madison Bay) and opened up some of Dorchester's more remote territory for timber and agricultural products to be shipped to Baltimore markets. Tubman lived near here while working for John T. Stewart. The canal, the waterways it opened to the Chesapeake Bay, and the Blackwater River were the means of conveying goods, lumber, and those seeking freedom. And the small ports were places for connecting the enslaved with the world outside the Eastern Shore, places on the path north to freedom.

Near the canal is the Jacob Jackson Home Site, 480 acres of flat farmland, woodland, and wetland that was the site of one of the first safe houses along the Underground Railroad. Jackson was a free black man to whom Tubman appealed for assistance in 1854 in attempting to retrieve her brothers and who, because he was literate, would have been an important link in the local communication network. The Jacob Jackson Home Site has been donated to the United States.

Further reinforcing the historical significance and integrity of these sites is their proximity to other important sites of Tubman's life and work. She was born in the heart of this area at Peter's Neck at the end of Harrisville Road, on the farm of Anthony Thompson. Nearby is the farm that belonged to Edward Brodess, enslaver of Tubman's mother and her children. The James Cook Home Site is where Tubman was hired out as a child. She remembered the harsh treatment she received here, long afterward recalling that even when ill, she was expected to wade into swamps throughout the cold winter to haul muskrat traps. A few miles from the James Cook Home Site is the Bucktown Crossroads, where a slave overseer hit the 13-year-old Tubman with a heavy iron as she attempted to protect a young fleeing slave, resulting in an injury that affected Tubman for the rest of her life. A quarter mile to the north are Scotts Chapel and the associated African-American graveyard. The church was founded in 1812 as a Methodist congregation. Later, in the mid-19th century, African Americans split off from the congregation and formed Bazel Church. Across from Scotts Chapel is an African-American graveyard with headstones dating to 1792.

Bazel Church is located nearby on a 1-acre clearing edged by the road and otherwise surrounded by cultivated fields and forest. According to tradition, this is where African Americans worshipped outdoors during Tubman's time.

The National Park Service has found this landscape in Dorchester County to be nationally significant because of its deep association with Tubman and the Underground Railroad. It is representative of the landscape of this region in the early and mid-19th century when enslavers and enslaved worked the farms and forests. This is the landscape where free African Americans and the enslaved led a clandestine movement of people out of slavery towards the North Star of freedom. These sites were places where enslaved and free African Americans intermingled. Moreover, these sites fostered an environment that enabled free individuals to provide aid and guidance to those enslaved who were seeking freedom. This landscape, including the towns, roads, and paths within it, and its critical waterways, was the means for communication and the path to freedom. The Underground Railroad was everywhere within it.

Much of the landscape in Dorchester County that is Harriet Tubman's homeland, including a portion of Stewart's Canal, is now part of Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. The Refuge provides vital habitat for migratory birds, fish, and wildlife that are components of this historic landscape. Management of the Refuge by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has played an important role in the protection of much of the historic landscape that was formative to Harriet Tubman's life and experiences. The Refuge has helped to conserve the landscape since 1933 and will continue to conserve, manage, and restore this diverse assemblage of wetlands, uplands, and aquatic habitats that play such an important role in telling the story of the cultural history of the area. In the midst of this landscape, the State of Maryland is developing the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad State Park on a 17-acre parcel. The State of Maryland and the Federal Government will work closely together in managing these special places within their respective jurisdictions to preserve this critically important era in American history.

Harriet Tubman is revered by many as a freedom seeker and leader of the Underground Railroad. Although Harriet Tubman is known widely, no Federal commemorative site has heretofore been established in her honor, despite the magnitude of her contributions and her national and international stature.

WHEREAS members of the Congress, the Governor of Maryland, the City of Cambridge, and other State, local, and private interests have expressed support for the timely establishment of a national monument in Dorchester County commemorating Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad to protect the integrity of the evocative landscape and preserve its historic features;

WHEREAS section 2 of the Act of June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. 225, 16 U.S.C. 431) (the "Antiquities Act"), authorizes the President, in his discretion, to declare by public proclamation historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest that are situated upon the lands owned or controlled by the Government of the United States to be national monuments, and to reserve as a part thereof parcels of land, the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected;

WHEREAS it is in the public interest to preserve and protect the objects of historic and scientific interest associated with Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad in Dorchester County, Maryland;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by section 2 of the Antiquities Act, hereby proclaim, set apart, and reserve as the Harriet Tubman -- Underground Railroad National Monument (monument), the objects identified above and all lands and interests in lands owned or controlled by the Government of the United States within the boundaries described on the accompanying map, which is attached to and forms a part of this proclamation, for the purpose of protecting those objects. These reserved Federal lands and interests in lands encompass approximately 11,750 acres, which is the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected.

All Federal lands and interests in lands within the boundaries of this monument are hereby appropriated and withdrawn from all forms of entry, location, selection, sale, leasing, or other disposition under the public land laws, including withdrawal from location, entry, and patent under the mining laws, and from disposition under all laws relating to mineral and geothermal leasing.

The establishment of this monument is subject to valid existing rights. Lands and interests in lands within the boundaries of the monument that are not owned or controlled by the United States shall be reserved as part of the monument upon acquisition of ownership or control by the United States.

The Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) shall manage the monument through the National Park Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, pursuant to their respective applicable legal authorities, to implement the purposes of this proclamation. The National Park Service shall have the general responsibility for administration of the monument, including the Jacob Jackson Home Site, subject to the responsibility and jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to administer the portions of the national monument that are within the National Wildlife Refuge System. When any additional lands and interests in lands are hereafter acquired by the United States within the monument boundaries, the Secretary shall determine whether such lands will be administered as part of the National Park System or the National Wildlife Refuge System. Hunting and fishing within the National Wildlife Refuge System shall continue to be administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in accordance with the provisions of the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act and other applicable laws.

Consistent with applicable laws, the National Park Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service shall enter into appropriate arrangements to share resources and services necessary to properly manage the monument. Consistent with applicable laws, the National Park Service shall offer to enter into appropriate arrangements with the State of Maryland for the efficient and effective cooperative management of the monument and the Harriet Tubman -- Underground Railroad State Park.

The Secretary shall prepare a management plan for the monument, with full public involvement, within 3 years of the date of this proclamation. The management plan shall ensure that the monument fulfills the following purposes for the benefit of present and future generations: (1) to preserve the historic and scientific resources identified above, (2) to commemorate the life and work of Harriet Tubman, and (3) to interpret the story of the Underground Railroad and its significance to the region and the Nation as a whole. The management plan shall set forth, among other provisions, the desired relationship of the monument to other related resources, programs, and organizations in the region and elsewhere.

Nothing in this proclamation shall be deemed to revoke any existing withdrawal, reservation, or appropriation; however, the monument shall be the dominant reservation.

Warning is hereby given to all unauthorized persons not to appropriate, injure, destroy, or remove any feature of the monument and not to locate or settle upon any of the lands thereof.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-fifth day of March, in the year of our Lord two thousand thirteen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh.






Canada to Honor International Icon Harriet Tubman, as a National historic Person, at May 27, 2011 Plaque Unveiling in St. Catharines, Ontario

British Methodist Episcopal Church
Salem Chapel
92 Geneva Street
St. Catharines, Ontario
L2R 4N2
Tel. (905) 984-6769
Whereas, the British Methodist Methodist Episcopal Church at 93 Geneva Street was
the place of worship and the source of strength and encouragement for Harriet Tubman and her people, and continues today to be a place of worship and a repository of black culture and heritage
for many of their descendants.
Mayor Joseph L. McCaffery
Harriet Tubman Day, March 10, 1990 (view proclamation

Harriet Tubman 1993 Plaque Program  (view program)
Letter From St. Catharines (download)


Commemorating the 100th Memorial Anniversary of

Harriet Tubman

At the Salem Chapel, BME Church NHS, 92 Geneva St.,
St. Catharines, ON L2R 4K9 905-682-0993 


The Annual Harriet Tubman Day Dinner

Saturday, March 09, 2013 

General Tubman: Celebrating the Mission 

In combination with International Women€™s Day€Â¦ Let Freedom Reign! Special musical tribute by WomEnchant, poetry readings, local dignitaries, guest speakers and more at 3:00 p.m.  Free admission!   Food donations for Community Care would be greatly appreciated. 

Dinner to follow the celebration.  Tickets are $20.00 per adult and $12.00 for children under 10.

 The Harriet Tubman 100th Memorial Anniversary Tribute  Sunday, March 10, 2013 

Celebrating her dedication to Almighty God

Special religious tribute with local clergy guest speakers at 3:00 p.m.   In honour of Harriet Tubman who was deeply religious, selfless and giving, ALL monetary free will offerings will be donated to Community Care.   All are welcome to attend!

Harriet Tubman's friends and fellow abolitionists claimed that the source of her strength came from her faith in God as deliverer and protector of the weak. "I always told God," she said, "'I'm going to hold steady on to you, and you've got to see me through."


Harriet Tubman said she would listen carefully to the voice of God as she led slaves north, and she would only go where she felt God was leading her. Fellow abolitionist Thomas Garrett said of her, "I never met any person of any color who had more confidence in the voice of God."  

A listing of the yearlong centennial events can be found at

www.harriettubmancanada.com or www.salemchapelbmechurch.ca


Harriet Tubman finally gets her plaque

There is tough. And then there is Harriet Tubman tough.

She looks as stern and hard as a human being can in old photographs. Unsmiling and steely eyed, Tubman's face gives every impression of a woman who means business. But there are reasons for that.

During one of her treks into Canada leading slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad from the United States, the iconic freedom fighter developed serious problems with her teeth. Serious enough that it should have stopped her in her tracks.

But when you are an outlaw on the run, flaunting the racist laws of state and federal governments, there isn't time to stop.

"Tubman herself was fierce €Â¦ she pulled out her own teeth," said Rochelle Bush, church historian for the Salem chapel at the British Methodist Episcopal Church on Geneva St. Friday. "As she was guiding freedom seekers north to Canada, she pulled out her teeth because they were driving her crazy. That's why she doesn't smile."

Bush regaled the audience that packed the church Friday morning as part of a ceremony to unveil a Parks Canada historical plaque commemorating Tubman's role as a critical conductor of the railroad, a loosely connected series of safe-houses African-American slaves used to escape to freedom in Canada.

The church was one of the final points on the railroad and Tubman took up residence in St. Catharines for about a decade, Bush said.

The plaque was actually issued years before, but because of a squabble over how it presented Tubman's birth date it was kept in storage at Fort George in Niagara-on-the-Lake.

Bush and others took issue with the plaque giving Tubman's birth date as 1822. In fact, Tubman's exact date of birth is unknown, so Bush insisted the plaque read "circa. 1822."

It wasn't until St. Catharines MP Rick Dykstra got involved that a new plaque was produced with the letter "c" added before the year.

"This has been a long time coming," Bush said before the unveiling.

However, when she presented a short history of Tubman's life the original plaque's gaffe came back to haunt her.

"Tubman, born in 1822," she said before stopping herself.

"Circa. 1822," she said, laughing. "Circa!"

The plaque will be displayed at the BME Church.


Plaque will Honor Harriet Tubman €” Finally!

Dispute over Tubman's birth date settled


ST. CATHARINES €” A dispute over the date of Harriet Tubman's birth means a plaque honoring her as a person of national importance has been in storage since 2005, because members of the British Methodist Episcopal Church in St. Catharines refused to allow it to be erected. A person born into slavery in the United States would never know the date of her birth, said BME Church historian Rochelle Bush on Sunday, as the Salem Chapel celebrated the 160th anniversary of Tubman's arrival in St. Catharines. "They were like dogs, like possessions. There were no records." So when, in 2005, Parks Canada made Tubman only the second person in St. Catharines to be given the national honor (she joined William Hamilton Merritt) and prepared a plaque marking her significance, BME Church members were dismayed at the date given for her birth. The large metal plaque indicated she had been born in 1820.

"Proclaiming we know exactly when she was born would be wrong," Bush said. "Marking it would be a dishonor to her and to our history." And it would have been confusing, because a provincial plaque erected outside the church says Tubman was born "circa 1820" €” correctly indicating a level of uncertainty of which the church members approved. So because of a missing "C," the federal plaque has been languishing in storage at Fort George in Niagara-on-the-Lake ever since. It wasn't until St. Catharines MP Rick Dykstra took up the case with Parks Canada that the dispute was finally resolved, Bush said.

Speaking at the church service Sunday afternoon, Dykstra said he has long considered Tubman a personal hero because of the "defining moment" when she decided to risk her own freedom to help others. He said Parks Canada staff didn't want to scrap the sign they had commissioned, but he decided to intervene on behalf of the church. "I really wanted that plaque to go up, but the church said you can't install it unless it's correct," he said afterward. "I am very pleased to be able to tell you that this situation has now been resolved and that a new plaque is being prepared and will be unveiled in May," Dykstra said. Bush said Tubman's national distinction was never publicized because of the dispute over her birth. Now that the dispute has been resolved, the plaque can be installed.

St. Catharines Mayor Brian McMullan said it's important to remember the contribution of Tubman and others who fought for freedom, "because we are the beneficiaries of what they fought for." Rev. Jason Haynes, pastor of Zion Baptist Church, said it was also important to remember Tubman was inspired by her deep religious faith, and her conviction that God was calling her to risk her life for the freedom of others. "There would be no Harriet Tubman without Jesus Christ," said Haynes. "She affirmed it herself, she loved the Lord, and she did what she did not just because she loved people but because she loved the Lord." Haynes said the entire abolitionist movement was founded on Christian principles.

"Most abolitionists, whether they were black or white, were Christians who loved the Lord," said Haynes. "And the greatest abolitionist I've ever known is my Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. You are not really free unless you know him." Haynes said people who want to recognized Tubman must acknowledge what motivated her. "We honor Harriet Tubman by honoring our God and Savior Jesus Christ," he said. McMullan said he hopes the vacant lot behind the church will one day be the site of a black history museum. "I have a dream," McMullan said, "and in my dream there is a building in that spot. Perhaps some day, in the not too distant future, we will all be able to celebrate a national historic museum."

 St. Catharines Standard 3/7/2011 article


Well and Tribune, Niagara, ON Region 3/7/2011 article with several photos


Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway

Before the Civil War, African American Freedom Seekers
fled north to freedom through a combination of people and
landscapes that became known as the "Underground Railroad." 
As the last slave state, Delaware was a critical leg to freedom.
Harriet Tubman and other "conductors" led more than 3,000
Freedom Seekers through Delaware. Wilmington, Quaker
Thomas Garrett, was influential on orchestrating the
Underground Railroad network in Delaware through
organization of members and safe locations.


Harriet Tubman sculpture unveiled in St. Catharines

Posted By JULIE GRECO/QMI Agency

A bust of Harriet Tubman was unveiled in the garden next to the British Methodist Episcopal Church on Geneva St., St. Catharines. The bust was made by artist Frank Rekrut who is seen being photographed by the bust. JULIE JOCSAK Standard Staff

ST. CATHARINES €” Harriet Tubman has always had a strong historical presence at the British Methodist Episcopal Church in St. Catharines, but now that presence is concrete.

A stone bust of the famed Underground Railroad conductor was unveiled at the church Monday, surrounded by a new meditation garden.

The celebration marked a collaboration that transformed a dead lawn at the church at 92 Geneva St. into a stone path, garden and focal point.

"A lot of people's hearts went into this project," said Rochelle Bush, church historian and Salem Chapel trustee.

The bust was donated by sculptor Frank Rekrut, who spent months creating the likeness.

The garden project, meanwhile, was financed by the St. Catharines Green Committee and St. Catharines Horticultural Society and designed by Eco Landscape Design of St. Catharines.

Other donors contributed to the work's installation, benches and a pedestal.

In a remarkable coincidence, Rekrut began working on a Tubman bust prior to learning the church wanted a statue.

He only took up sculpting a few years ago.

When a copy of a bust of a cardinal by Gian Lorenzo Bernini worked out well, he turned his attention to a local subject.

Rekrut said he often drove by the BME church near work and decided to make a Tubman statue.

Meanwhile, ECO had designed a garden next to the church that included a statue in the design, but it wasn't something the church or green committee could afford to commission.

So when Rekrut called to offer his bust for free, everyone was floored.

"I just thought this was a unique opportunity," he said.

Producing a sculpture from a black and white photograph proved challenging.

"We brought home every book in the library we could find," Rekrut said, referring to himself and wife Laura Thompson, who is an oil painter.

"We only found one front-on photo and it's tricky."

Those gathered Monday were enthusiastic about Rekrut's effort.

Tubman escaped slavery from Maryland in 1849 but continued to make trips to the southern states to help others find their freedom.

Eleven of the freedom seekers were brought to St. Catharines in 1851 and joined what is now the BME church, where Tubman herself worshiped.

Bush said the beautification project is in preparation for the 160th anniversary next year of Tubman's first visit to St. Catharines, when a national historic plaque will be unveiled. In 2013, the 100th anniversary of Tubman's death will also be remembered.

Bush searched far and wide for an appropriate quote to accompany the statue on its pedestal €” one that wasn't already being used at other Tubman sites in the U.S.

She found very few quotes from Tubman that were recorded.

"We wanted something unique to St. Catharines," she said. "Needle in a hay stack, but it was there."

The obscure and bold quote Bush discovered seemed appropriate for a woman who risked her life to bring more than 300 slaves north of the border.

The statue reads: "I wouldn't trust Uncle Sam with my people no longer. I brought them all clear off to Canada."

website link  


Better Angels Signs of the Times play by Colin Adams Toomey sponsored by Delaware Humanities Forum.

Photo is of the cast in the back with members of the Garrett family. Pictures taken March 3, 2013 in New Castle
Court House Museum in New Castle, Delaware.



Not Brand or Size, But By Footprint

The Honorable Corrine Brown

3rd District of Florida

2010 CBCF Theme: €œCelebrating the Vision, Continuing the Journey, Advancing the Mission.€� Passage along the Underground Railroad was a terrible and difficult journey. Some stowed away on boats, trains, or wagons. But the majority of the enslaved escaped by foot, traveling largely at night across rivers, hiking through mountains, through swamps, through rocky and thorny ground without benefit of protective footwear. They ran often without protection against the cuts, abrasions, and bruises from objects on the ground; no protection from frostbite or the parasites, no knowledge of or concern for brands and styles. They worked hard to leave no footprints behind for slave catchers or dogs to find. Instead, they left unmistakable footprints for us to follow to get beyond slavery, to fight against inequities, to challenge stereotypes and profiles, to stand up to and on the neck of Jim Crow, and to use in sizing the shoes for the feet of those who would continue the journey to freedom.

We are who we are, not because of the size of our feet; nor can our capacity be determined by the design, cost, or brand of shoe we wear. We have pursued our freedom, we stand, and we move forward in shoes passed down from generation to generation, broken in for our benefit. We follow the footprints left by fathers, by mothers, and others who walked and ran ahead and beside us as courageous youth, bold leaders, heads of households, conductors, weary sojournors, and mentors. Through this session, we celebrate their vision for freedom. We continue their journey. We advance the mission.

Panel Participants

Addie L. Richburg, Moderator President, National Alliance of Faith and Justice
Susan L. Taylor, Speaker Founder and CEO, National Cares Mentoring Movement
Cheryl T. Grills, Ph.D., Speaker President, Association of Blacks Psychologists, Inc. and
Associate Dean,
Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts
Carlvern Dunn, Speaker Historian, Kiamsha Youth Empowerment Organization

More information download pdf


Charter school in tough neighborhood gets all its seniors into college

Urban Prep Academy senior Keith Greer, along with his classmates, celebrates the news they will receive a free prom in Chicago because 100 percent of the graduating class was accepted into 4-year colleges or universities.
(Tribune photo by Heather Charles / March 5, 2010)

The entire senior class at Chicago's only public all-male, all-African-American high school has been accepted to four-year colleges. At last count, the 107 seniors had earned spots at 72 schools across the nation.

Richard Daley and Chicago Public Schools chief Ron Huberman surprised students at an all-school assembly at Urban Prep Academy for Young Men in Englewood this morning to congratulate them. It's the first graduating class at Urban Prep since it opened its doors in 2006.

Huber man applauded the seniors for making CPS shine. "All of you in the senior class have shown that what matters is perseverance, what matters is focus, what matters is having a dream and following that dream," Huberman said.

The school enforces a strict uniform of black blazers, khaki pants and red ties -- with one exception. After a student receives the news he was accepted into college, he swaps his red tie for a red and gold one at an assembly.

The last 13 students received their college ties today, to thunderous applause.

Ask Rayvaughn Hines what college he was accepted to and he'll answer with a question. "Do you want me to name them all?"

For the 18-year-old from Back of the Yards, college was merely a concept--never a goal--growing up. Even within the last three years, he questioned if school, let alone college, was for him. Now, the senior is headed to the prestigious Morehouse College in
Atlanta, Ga. next fall.

Hines remembers the moment he put on his red and gold tie. "I wanted to take my time because I was just so proud of myself," he said. "I wanted everyone to see me put it on."

The achievement might not merit a mayoral visit at one of the city's elite, selective enrollment high schools. But Urban Prep, a charter school that enrolls using a lottery in one of the city's more troubled neighborhoods, faced difficult odds. Only 4 percent of this year's senior class read at grade level as freshmen, according to Tim King, the school's CEO.

"I never had a doubt that we would achieve this goal," King said. "Every single person we hired knew from the day one that this is what we do: We get our kids into college."

College is omnipresent at the school. Before the students begin their freshman year, they take a field trip to
Northwestern University. Every student is assigned a college counselor the day he steps foot in the school.

The school offers an extended day--170,000 more minutes over four years compared to its counterparts across the city--and more than double the number of English credits usually needed to graduate.

Even the school's voicemail has a student declaring "I am college bound" before it asks callers to dial an extension.

Normally, it takes senior Jerry Hinds two buses and 45 minutes to get home from school. On Dec. 11, the day
University of Illinois at Champaign- Urbana was to post his admission decisions online at 5 p.m., he asked a friend to drive him home.

He went into his bedroom, told his well-wishing mother this was something he had to do alone, closed the door and logged in. "Yes! Yes! Yes!" he remembers screaming. His mother, who didn't dare stray far, burst in and began crying.

That night he made more than 30 phone calls, at times shouting "I got in" on his cell phone and home phone at the same time. "We're breaking barriers," he said. "And that feels great."

Copyright (c) 2010, Chicago Tribune

SRES 455 ATS 111th CONGRESS 2d Session S. RES. 455

Honoring the life, heroism, and service of Harriet Tubman.

March 15, 2010

Mrs. BOXER (for herself, Mr. BROWNBACK, Mr. SPECTER, Ms. SNOWE, Mr. SCHUMER, Mrs. GILLIBRAND, Ms. MIKULSKI, Mr. CARDIN, and Mr. LEVIN) submitted the following resolution; which was considered and agreed to

Honoring the life, heroism, and service of Harriet Tubman.
Whereas Harriet Ross Tubman was born into slavery as Araminta Ross in Dorchester County, Maryland, in or around 1820;

Whereas in 1849, Ms. Tubman bravely escaped to freedom, traveling alone for approximately 90 miles to Pennsylvania;

Whereas, after escaping slavery, Ms. Tubman participated in the Underground Railroad, a network of routes, people, and houses that helped slaves escape to freedom;

Whereas Ms. Tubman became a `conductor' on the Underground Railroad, courageously leading approximately 19 expeditions to help more than 300 slaves to freedom;

Whereas Ms. Tubman served as a spy, nurse, scout, and cook during the Civil War;

Whereas during her service in the Civil War, Ms. Tubman became the first woman in the United States to plan and lead a military expedition, which resulted in successfully freeing more than 700 slaves;

Whereas after the Civil War, Ms. Tubman continued to fight for justice and equality, including equal rights for African-Americans and women;

Whereas Ms. Tubman died on March 10, 1913, in Auburn, New York; and
Whereas the heroic life of Ms. Tubman continues to serve as an inspiration to the people of the United States:

Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the Senate--

(1) honors the life and courageous heroism of Harriet Tubman;
(2) recognizes the great contributions made by Harriet Tubman throughout her lifelong service and commitment to liberty, justice, and equality for all; and
(3) encourages the people of the United States to remember the courageous life of Harriet Tubman, a true hero.
Passed with Unanimous Consent of the U.S. Senate 3/15/2010

Mikulski Announces Funds for Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad
National Historical Park in Dorchester County-05/03/2010


Obama Honors Washington, DC Emancipation Day

A new addition to the Oval Office: An original copy of Abraham Lincoln's other emancipation proclamation, the one that freed the slaves of Washington, D.C., on this day in 1862, nine months before issuing the same order for other parts of the country. "We remain forever grateful as a nation for the struggles and sacrifices of those Americans who made that emancipation possible," Obama said in a statement honoring D.C. Emancipation Day.

Obama also used the occasion to advocate statehood rights for Washington, D.C., noting that city residents "pay federal taxes and serve honorably in our armed services," but do not have votes in the U.S. House or Senate.
"And so I urge Congress to finally pass legislation that provides D.C. residents with voting representation and to take steps to improve the Home Rule Charter," Obama said.
By Pete Souza, The White House

(Posted by David Jackson):

White House

Office of the Press Secretary

For Immediate Release April 16, 2010

Statement by the President

On this occasion, we remember the day in 1862 when President Lincoln freed the enslaved people of Washington, DC €“ nine months before he issued the Emancipation Proclamation. I am proud that an original copy of that document now hangs in the Oval Office, and we remain forever grateful as a nation for the struggles and sacrifices of those Americans who made that emancipation possible.

Americans from all walks of life are gathering in Washington today to remind members of Congress that although DC residents pay federal taxes and serve honorably in our armed services, they do not have a vote in Congress or full autonomy over local issues. And so I urge Congress to finally pass legislation that provides DC residents with voting representation and to take steps to improve the Home Rule Charter.

President Abraham Lincoln signed the District of Columbia Emancipation Act into law on April 16, 1862. The Act ended slavery in the nation's capital, freeing some 3,100 enslaved persons, and is the only example in which the Federal Government compensated slaveholders for the enslaved persons they once held.
Mrs. Loretta Carter Hanes, an educator, researcher and the president of DC Reading Is Fundamental, Inc., researched, initiated and spearheaded the revival of the District of Columbia Emancipation Commemoration. Since 1991, Mrs. Hanes and DC Reading Is Fundamental, along with her son Peter and Historians C.R. Gibbs and Vincent deForest, have organized annual DC Emancipation Commemoration public educational programs. Her untiring efforts arose to the attention of community groups like the United Black Fund, historic churches such as the All Souls Church Unitarian and Asbury United Methodist Church, and local and Federal Government officials, including the U.S. National Archives, U.S. National Park Service and Members of the U.S. Congress. Mrs. Hanes inspired these and other organizations and individuals to mark the DC Emancipation Act with annual educational and celebratory events across the nation's capital. Such combined advocacy for this watershed event in our nation's history led then DC Mayor Anthony Williams to sign into law in 2005 that each April 16th thereafter would be Emancipation Day, a public legal holiday.
Enslavement to Emancipation, a new Government of the District of Columbia documentary film, covers the history of Washington, DC, from enslavement to emancipation to civil rights to voting rights, in the context of United States history (run time: 60 minutes). The free online documentary includes historic documents, images, video and dramatic readings and interviews of various experts that combine to provide a compelling portrait of the history of the nation's capital. [The online video is best viewed in Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 or Mozilla Firefox 3.6 or better]. To view the free video, visit:

Related Educational Resources 

photo by: Bob Seeley

Seaford Museum to open Underground Railroad Exhibit.. 
Sussex County Post Updated February 9, 2014
February 12, 2014

Seaford Museum to open Underground Railroad exhibit
Sussex County Post
Updated February 9, 2014
SEAFORD €” The Seaford Museum will open an exhibit on the Underground Railroad in the Nanticoke Headwater€™s area and Harriet Tubman€™s Daring Escape through Seaford in its Webb Exhibit Room starting Saturday, February 22, 2 at 1 p.m. 

The temporary exhibit will run at least through the month of May and possibly longer based on visitor demand. The exhibit opening will follow the unveiling of the Gateway to Freedom Delaware Public Archives historic marker that is scheduled to be dedicated the prior Monday, Feb. 17 at 2 p.m. at Gateway Park. The historic marker will chronicle the Harriet Tubman Tilly Escape where Harriet and the slave, Tilly, came south from Baltimore to Seaford and stayed at old Coulbourn Hotel location across from Seaford City Hall on High and Market Streets. 

€œWhen you are walking in the fountain area of Gateway Park, you are literally walking in the footsteps of Harriet Tubman, an American hero who is admired by everyone,€� said local historian and museum researcher Jim Blackwell. €œIt is one thing for a slave to have headed north to escape slavery, but Harriet Tubman headed south - from the North, time and time again to help others find freedom. She was a truly courageous American. It is an honor for our town to have a historic marker detailing one of the most daring exploits of this American History icon. This is truly a great story for our town to be able to tell.€�

Following this temporary exhibit, the Seaford Museum will also be making a permanent exhibit of the Tilly Story and Harriet Tubman€™s Daring Escape through Seaford as well as the Underground Railroad in the Nanticoke Headwaters. This permanent exhibit will open later this summer.

The Seaford Museum, located at 203 High Street, is open to the public Thursday through Sunday from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Admission is $5 per adult with children 12 and under free when accompanied by an adult. 

Admission is free to Seaford Historical Society members.



Tubman sculpture to grace BME church garden

When Ada Summer finally got a chance to see the sculpture of the legendary Underground Railroad conductor that will soon be installed outside of her church, it was everything she could have hoped for.

The British Methodist Episcopal Church trustee and treasurer Ada Summer had heard local artist Frank Rekrut was creating a bust of Harriet Tubman to be displayed in the church€™s commemorative garden.
As it neared completion, Summer was invited to see the work in progress.

She wasn€™t disappointed. €œIt sent shivers up my spine,€� she said.

Tubman sculpture to grace BME church garden. British Methodist Episcopal Church trustee and treasurer Ada Summer gets a close look at the nearlycompleted sculpture of Harriet Tubman, being created for the church€™s commemorative garden by artist Frank Rekrut.

The clay sculpture is based on a rare photograph of Tubman, taken from the approximate time period she was a member of the St. Catharines church. Summer said she loves how it appears the woman is about to speak.

€œIt€™s exactly like it is in the picture,€� she said. €œIt looks so realistic.€�

Summer added she showed photos of the sculpture to members of the church, who were in €œawe€� of what they saw.

Just how the sculpture came to be created for the church is something of a story in itself.

Last fall, the St. Catharines green committee, working with donations of time and materials from local businesses, created a garden outside the Geneva Street church. Meant to be a place of quiet contemplation, the garden was also designed to show the proper respect for the church, the first and only federally designated historical site in the city.

While wonderfully preserved on the inside, complete with many of the original wooden pews, the outside of the church had until recently left much to be desired. On a busy urban street and blocked by billboards on the north side, the church was often overlooked.

After the installation of the garden by local firm Eco Landscape Design, green committee members Peter Thompstone and Donna Van Weenen expressed their vision for a complete garden, one that included benches, wooden fencing at the back of the property, and a sculpture of Tubman.

Since then, donations have kept on coming.

At the same time, Rekrut, who had recently returned with his wife, Laura Thompson, from Florence, Italy, was working on a sculpture. Rekrut, who has a Geneva Street workshop where he creates cast stone fireplaces, had just started taking up this type of work. Originally planning to create a sculpture of a European cardinal, he wanted to take on a project with more local significance and thought of the church down the road.

It was while in the middle of production that Thompson showed him a newspaper article about the garden and the dream of a statue.

€œIt just so happened we had a half-done bust of Harriet Tubman,€� Thompson said. €œIt all worked out.€�
Van Weenan said an anonymous donor, a local woman with ties to the American south, gave a substantial amount to pay for the materials, a base and a black granite pedestal being provided at a discount by Kirkpatrick Monuments.

€œWhat Frank and the donors have done is amazing,€� she said. €œWonderful, generous people in this city, and when they see a need, they filled it.€�

Rekrut figures he€™s spent about 60 hours of his off-time working on the sculpture, explaining it was somewhat difficult to create a three-dimensional work basing it on a single flat photo.

€œYou just keep working on it until she tells you you€™re done, and then you€™re done,€� he said.

Once the clay model is finished, it will be covered in a rubber molding, which will be carefully peeled off to retain the shape and filled with cement.

The aim is to have the bust installed by the end of April.

Van Weenan said an agreement has been worked out between the billboard company and the city to take them away from the church, so they no longer block the view from the north. The billboards will be placed elsewhere in the city.

In honor of Harriet Tubman
St. Catharines served as a haven for those fleeing slavery in U.S.

With hundreds of organizations taking part across North America and Great Britain, members and guests of the British Methodist Episcopal Church, Salem Chapel, stood in unison on Sunday, March 7 to begin their service and celebration of the 20th anniversary of Harriet Tubman Day that was proclaimed on March 10, 1990 by Mayor Joseph L. McCaffery.

In McCaffery€™s words, €œWhereas the City of St. Catharines was the last station in Harriet Tubman€™s journey north, and served as a haven for the hundreds of blacks who remained in this area to become an important part of the social fabric of our community; and Whereas the British Methodist Episcopal Church at 92 Geneva Street was the place of worship and the source of strength and encouragement for Harriet Tubman and her people and continues today to be a place of worship and a repository of black culture and heritage for many of their descendents.€�

A unique cultural heritage, and the only National Historic site in the City of St. Catharines, Salem Chapel was erected in 1855. The small white wooden framed structure was host to about 100 people who came to honour Harriet Ross Tubman and the memory of a woman of international importance. Traditional gospels such as €˜Swing Low Sweet Chariot€™ and a performance by the Salem Chapel Youth Trio of€˜God Has Smiled On Me€™ were part the festivities on the humble and historical site.

In honour of Harriet Tubman. Brother Holmes Smith, senior trustee of Salem Chapel, has served the BME Church for 40 years and took part in the service commemorating Harriet Tubman Day of March 10 with congregation members and guests.

Regarded as €˜The Black Moses€™ by her people, Tubman helped more than 300 slaves make their way out of bondage to a land of freedom. Only five foot two and a mere 130 pounds she was enslaved since the age of five and managed to escape when she was 29 years old to Shipman€™s Corners, later-day St. Catharines.

€œAbolitionists requested her presence at anti-slavery rallies and Southern slaveholders wanted her captured dead or alive,€� said Rochelle Bush, historical director of Salem Chapel.

While living in St. Catharines, Tubman became a master of disguise during her courageous trips back to the south to help other fugitive slaves make their way to British soil. Through a pathway of compassionate people, the Underground Railroad was a vast network stretching from the Mason-Dixon Line in the United States to Canada.

€œToday, Harriet Tubman is heralded as the iconic figure of the Underground Railroad and we are grateful that she settled here in St. Catharines and chose this church as her place of worship, €œ said Bush. €œTo many African-Americans, the Salem Chapel is hallowed ground.€�


Smithsonian Receives Rare Harriet Tubman Items



Smithsonian 3/10/2010 News Release Harriet Tubman Collection Unveiled
by National Museum of African American History and Culture

Harriet Tubman (ca. 1822-1913), was an abolitionist, Underground Railroad conductor, U.S. Civil War nurse, scout, and spy, women€™s suffragist, and humanitarian. She was a shero and daughter of both the USA and Canada. The Salem Chapel British Methodist Episcopal (BME) Church, in Saint  Catharines, Ontario, was associated with abolitionist activity and it was also Tubman€™s church. The Government of Canada designated the church as a National Historic Site of Canada in 2000. The Government of Canada also designated Tubman as a National Historic Person of Canada in 2005 (The plaque dedication program has not yet taken place) (See the Parks Canada Black Heritage Portal at http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/culture/mhn-bhm/index.aspx

Related U.S. Congressional Bill-S.227 Harriet Tubman National Historical Park and Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historical Park Act. When this bill is signed into law by President Obama, it would create two National Historical Parks, one in Maryland, Tubman€™s birth state, and the other in Auburn, NY, where Tubman lived in her later years, that includes her home, the home for elderly Blacks that she founded, a neighboring cemetery where she is interred, and the nearby church where she worshipped (See the National Park Service Harriet Tubman Special Resource Study with weblinks to Bill S.227 at http://www.harriettubmanstudy.org/ ). 

Harriet Tubman Day
Harriet Tubman passed away on March 10, 1913. Harriet Tubman Day is commemorated annually on March 10th, in several states, including Maryland, Delaware, New York, and the City of Saint Catharines, Ontario, Canada. March 10, 2013 will mark the 100th anniversary of Harriet Tubman€™s passing and the State of Maryland is already looking toward that centennial. Lou Fields the Maryland Statewide Coordinator for Harriet Tubman Day. 

Vince, Vivian, Dr. Blockson and I are collaborating to encourage international (Canada-USA) recognition of Harriet Tubman€™s legacy. Regards,

Peter Hanes

Washington Post 3/10/2010 Page C01 Smithsonian Gets 39 Harriet Tubman Artifacts

Blockson Collection celebrates Women€™s History Month
Thursday, March 12, 2009


A hymn book owned by Harriet Tubman, abolitionist and conductor of the Underground Railroad, was among the artifacts displayed as part of the Women€™s History Month celebration held at the Charles L. Blockson Afro-American Collection on March 5. The Blockson Collection displayed the artifacts €” which included a shawl given to Tubman by Queen Victoria of England, a memorial program from her funeral and other collectables €” as part of its yearly homage to notable African American women.

This year€™s honorees were: City Councilwoman Jannie Blackwell; author and

Photo by Ryan S. Brandenberg/Temple University
A hymn book owned by Harriet Tubman

educator Marie T. Bogle; Odunde Festival founder Lois Fernandez; television news pioneer Trudy Haines; Philadelphia Inquirer columnist Annette John-Hall; founder and president of the American Women€™s History Museum Audrey Johnson-Thornton; philanthropist Beverly Lomax; and Willa Ward-Royster, last remaining member of the gospel group the Clara Ward Singers. Poet and publisher for Third World Press Haki Madhubuti performed several poems as part of the festivities, which were broadcast live on WURD 990-AM and hosted by the station€™s programming director, Thera Martin Connelly.


Keeping Stories Alive
Experts and uncles, historians and teens share tales of the Underground Railroad
Read More

WBOC  16  DelMarva's News Leader  Salisbury/Dover/Milton
Tubman Park Gets Nearly $1.2M From Park Service

Posted: Sep 14, 2009 11:33 AM EDT

Harriet Tubman was born in Dorchester County, where she spent nearly 30 years as a slave before escaping in 1849.

Harriet Tubman was born in Dorchester County, where she spent nearly 30 years as a slave before escaping in 1849.

BALTIMORE- A $1,191,312 National Park Service grant will help develop outdoor recreation facilities in Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad State Park in Dorchester County on Maryland's Eastern Shore.

Sens. Benjamin Cardin and Barbara Mikulski and Rep. Frank Kratovil announced the grant from the park service's Land and Water Conservation Fund on Monday.
"Born on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in Dorchester County, Harriet Tubman left an indelible mark on history as the 'conductor' of the Underground Railroad, a suffragist, and humanitarian, yet, the places associated with her life and work are not well known," Kratovil said.  "Establishing Dorchester County's first state park as a way of honoring her contributions to American history is not only a respectful way to honor a woman whose commitment to the rights of others was unmatched, but it serves as a meaningful method of preserving our environment, protecting wildlife, and passing a historical legacy onto our children and future generations."

Maryland expects to begin site development at the 17-acre site in December 2010 with completion expected approximately a year later.

Tubman was born in Dorchester County, where she spent nearly 30 years as a slave before escaping in 1849. She later led hundreds of slaves to freedom as part of the anti-slavery resistance network known as the Underground Railroad.

Earlier this week, Cardin, Mikulski and Kratovil announced an 823-acre addition to the adjacent Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge.

Senators Cardin & Mikulski Introduce Bill in 111th Congress To Honor Harriet Tubman's Life  (download pdf)


Charles  L. Blockson, Curator

Charles L. Blockson Afro-American Collection 

Testimony at the Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act of 1997 Hearings 

BILL, H.R. 1635 
To establish within the United States National Park Service the
National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Program
 Longworth House Office Building, Room 1324, Washington, DC 
July 22, 1997 €“ 10 am 

It is indeed an honor for me to participate in this historical event, in an effort to preserve the former sites of the Underground Railroad, a subject that I have been committed to since I was a child.  When I was ten years old, my grandfather told me that my great grandfather and other members of my family escaped slavery on the Freedom Train, that was commonly known as the Underground Railroad.  Although my great grandfather returned to the United States after the Civil War, other relatives remained in various parts of Canada to include Nova Scotia. 

For more than thirty years, I have researched, collected and written about this important American epic.  My greatest contribution was the cover story I wrote for National Geographic magazine in July 1984.  It proved to be a popular article, receiving hundreds of letters worldwide, stimulating interest in the preservation of these historical sites.  The article also gave me an opportunity to travel throughout the nation, covering 20 states, including the provinces of Canada.  

To my astonishment, I discovered with great sadness that many of the sites have been demolished due to urban removal, particularly the ones in the African American community.  I also discovered that many of the sites today are under private ownership.  In June of 1988, I was invited to speak by the Quindaro Town Preservation Society in Kansas City, Kansas, to help save the Quindaro ruins from being destroyed to build a landfill at the Old Quindaro town site.  Quindaro was once an abolitionist settlement and a station for blacks fleeing slavery via the Underground Railroad. 

In 1990, my connection with the Underground Railroad Study began with former U.S. Representative Peter H. Kostmayer (D., Pa.) who, after reading my book the Underground Railroad in Pennsylvania and my article in National Geographic, asked me if it was possible for these former sites to be preserved, and if so, he would introduce a bill to the Secretary of Interior to designate a route as the Underground Railroad Historic Trail, install suitable signs and markers and provide maps, brochures and other informational devices to assist the public.  After the proposal was approved, I, along with several others were asked to testify before a similar Committee in Congress.  Consequently, Rep. Kostmayer asked me to select a group of people that represented various parts of the nation to from an Advisory Committee.  His staff then contacted the prospective member of the Advisory Committee.  This was how the Advisory Committee was formed, and I was selected by them as Chair.  Four months before the Advisory Committee was organized, a press conference was held, at which I participated with Rep. Kostmayer, at Philadelphia€™s Mother Bethel A.M.E. Church.  Mother Bethel, the oldest A.M.E. Church in the country, was one of the most important stations that hid hundreds of slaves.  This press conference generated a growing interest throughout the nation to preserve the former Underground Railroad sites. 

The Advisory Committee met in various parts of the United States visiting the Underground Railroad sites.  I organized several tours, some of which I led.  Last year, I took a group of school teachers from the Washington, DC area on a tour sponsored by National Geographic.  We traveled from Harriet Tubman€™s birthplace in Bucktown, MD, to Underground Railroad sites in Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and upstate New York, to include Harriet Tubman€™s and Frederick Douglass€™ grave-site and then into Canada.  I was also a consultant for two television documentaries about the Underground Railroad. 

Because of the ongoing international interest in the Underground Railroad and its idealized history, in which fact and memory intertwine to epitomize a period of rich heritage, it is imperative that Bill, H.R. 1635 is implemented and receive the proper funding to better preserve and exhibit our national heritage.  It is also imperative that an interpretive handbook is written by scholars and consultants to teach the history and preserve the memories of those brave souls who represented the morality of Antebellum America; remembering the heroic essence and hardships of great spirits such as Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Levi Coffin, John Brown, Lucreatia Mott, William Still, Native Americans such as, Chief Pontiac, and a host of others.  We realize that no one institution, book or in-depth study can tell the full story of this pivotal period in the history of America, however, we can achieve its fullest expression through the lives of such luminaries and the mechanisms they used for freedom in this important chapter in history.  Increasing the need for wider recognition, we must challenge the deployment of the national media in presenting the cultural value of our heritage constructively, to inform rather than entertain. 

In closing, I would like to commend the work of the staff of the National Park Service for keeping this project alive; a special thanks to the Underground Railroad Study Advisory Committee for your efforts and hard work over the past five years that have turned a necessity into a possible reality. Without your help and the help of the hundreds of people throughout the nation, who supported this great project, we would not have been able to attain its goal.  And, thanks to those of you who have come today, many from great distances, to support the project. 

In the words of the old slave spiritual, that was sung in connection with the Underground Railroad, €œPlease Don€™t Let This Harvest Pass.€�  Let this BILL become a reality so that our children of all races, creeds and colors can enter into the 21st century in brotherhood and sisterhood.  




Letter from Frederick Douglass. 
ROCHESTER, August 29, 1868

DEAR HARRIET: I am glad to know that the story of your eventful life has been written by  a kind lady, and that the same is soon to be published. You ask for what you do not need when you call upon me for a word of commendation.  I need such words from you far more than you can need them from me, especially where your superior labors and devotion to the cause of the lately enslaved of our land are known as I know them. The difference between us is very marked. Most that I have done and suffered in the service of our cause has been in public, and I have received much encouragement at every step of the way. You, on the other hand, have labored in a private way. I have wrought in the day€”you in the night. I have had the applause of the crowd and the satisfaction that comes of being approved by the multitude, while the most that you have done has been witnessed by a few trembling, scarred, and foot-sore bondmen and women, whom you have led out of the house of bondage, and whose heartfelt €œGod bless you€� has been your only reward. The midnight sky and the silent stars have been the witnesses of your devotion to freedom and of your heroism. Excepting John Brown€”of sacred memory€”I know of no one who has willingly encountered more perils and hardships to serve our enslaved people than you have. Much that you have done would seem improbable to, those who do not know you as I know you. It is to me a great pleasure and a great privilege to bear testimony to your character and your works, and to say to those to whom you may come, that I regard you in every way truthful and trustworthy.  

Your friend,


 Letter from Wendell Phillips.

June 16, 1868. 

DEAR MADAME: The last time I ever saw John Brown was under my roof, as he brought Harriet Tubman  to me saying: €œMr. Phillips, I bring you one of the best and bravest persons on this continent€”General Tubman, as we call her.€�

     He then went on to recount her labors and sacrifices in behalf of her race. After that, Harriet spent some time in Boston, earning the confidence and admiration of all those who were working for freedom. With their aid she went to the South more than once, returning always with a squad of self-emancipated men, women, and children, for whom her marvelous skill had opened the way of escape. After the war broke out, she was sent with endorsements from Governor Andrew and his friends to South Carolina, where in the service of the Nation she rendered most important and efficient aid to our army.

     In my opinion there are few captains, perhaps few colonels, who have done more for the loyal cause since the war began, and few men who did before that time more for the colored race, than our fearless and most sagacious friend, Harriet.

Faithfully yours, 

Extracts from a Letter written by Mr. Sanborn, Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of State Charities. 

MY DEAR MADAME:  Mr. Phillips has sent me your note, asking for reminiscences of Harriet Tubman, and testimonials to her extraordinary story, which all her New England friends will, I am sure, be glad to furnish.

     I never had reason to doubt the truth of what Harriet said in regard to her own career, for I found her singularly truthful. Her imagination is warm and rich, and there is a whole region of the marvelous in her nature, which has manifested itself at times remarkably. Her dreams and visions, misgivings and forewarnings, ought not to be omitted in any life of her, particularly those relating to John Brown.

     She was in his confidence in 1858-59, and he had a great regard for her, which he often expressed to me. She aided him in his plans, and expected to do so still further, when his career was closed by that wonderful campaign in Virginia. The first time she came to my house, in Concord, after that tragedy, she was shown into a room in the evening, where Brackett€™s bust of John Brown was standing. The sight of it, which was new to her, threw her into a sort of ecstasy of sorrow and admiration, and she went on in her rhapsodical way to pronounce his apotheosis.

     She has often been in Concord, where she resided at the houses of Emerson, Alcott, the Whitneys, the Brooks family, Mrs. Horace Mann, and other well-known persons. They all admired and respected her, and nobody doubted the reality of her adventures. She was too real a person to be suspected.  In 1862, I think it was, she went from Boston to Port Royal, under the advice and encouragement of Mr. Garrison, Governor Andrew, Dr. Howe, and other leading people. Her career in South Carolina is well known to some of our officers, and I think to Colonel Higginson, now of Newport, R.I., and Colonel James Montgomery, of Kansas, to both of whom she was useful as a spy and guide, if I mistake not. I regard her as, on the whole, the most extraordinary person of her race I have ever met. She is a negro of pure, or most pure blood, can neither read not write, and has the characteristics of her race and condition. But she has done what can scarcely be credited on the best authority, and she has accomplished her purposes with a coolness, foresight, patience and wisdom, which in a white man would have raised him to the highest pitch of reputation.    

I am, dear Madame, very truly your servant.
F.B. SANBORN             

Letter from Col. James Montgomery. 

ST. HELENA ISLAND, S.C., July 6, 1863.

BRIG.-GEN. GILMORE, Commanding Department of the South€” 

GENERAL: I wish to commend to your attention, Mrs. Harriet Tubman, a most remarkable woman, and invaluable as a scout. I have been acquainted with her character and actions for several years.

     I am, General, your most ob€™t servant, JAMES MONTGOMERY, Col. Com. Brigade.

Letter from Mrs. Gen. A. Baird
PETERBORO, Nov. 24, 1864. 

    The bearer of this, Harriet Tubman, a most excellent woman, who has rendered faithful

And good services to our Union army, not only in the hospitals, but in various capacities, having been employed under Government at Hilton Head, and in Florida; and I commend her to the protection of all officers in whose department she may happen to be.

     She has been known and esteemed for years by the family of my uncle, Hon. Gerrit Smith, as a person of great rectitude and capabilities. 

Letter from Hon. Gerrit Smith.
PETERBORO, N.Y., Nov. 4, 1867. 

     I have known Mrs. Harriet Tubman for many years. Seldom, if ever, have I met with a person more philanthropic, more self-denying, and of more bravery. Nor must I omit to say that she combines with her sublime spirit, remarkable discernment and judgment.

     During the late war, Mrs. Tubman was eminently faithful and useful to the cause of our country. She is poor and has poor parents. Such a servant of the country should be well paid by the country. I hope that the Government will look into her case. 


Testimonial from Gerrit Smith.
PETERBORO, Nov. 22, 1864.      

     The bearer, Harriet Tubman, needs not any recommendation. Nearly all the nation over, she has been heard of for her wisdom, integrity, patriotism, and bravery. The cause of freedom owes her much. The country owes her much.

     I have known Harriet for many years, and I hold her in my high esteem. 


Certificate from Henry K. Durrant, Acting Asst. Surgeon, U.S.A. 

     I certify that I have been acquainted with Harriet Tubman for nearly two years; and my position as Medical Officer in charge of €œcontrabands€� in this town and in hospital, has given me frequent and ample opportunities to observe her general deportment; particularly her kindness and attention to the sick and suffering of her own race. I take much pleasure in testifying to the esteem in which she is generally held. 

Acting Assistant Surgeon, U.S.A.
In charge €œContraband€� Hospital.
Dated at Beaufort, S.C., the 3d day of May, 1864.
I concur fully in the above. 
R. SAXTON, Brig.- Gen. Vol.                 

      A Letter from Gen. Saxton to a lady of Auburn.

ATLANTA, Ga., March 21, 1868. 

MY DEAR MADAME: I have just received your letter informing me that Hon. Wm. H. Seward, Secretary of State, would present a petition to Congress for a pension to Harriet Tubman, for services rendered in the Union Army during the late war. I can bear witness to the value of her services in South Carolina and Florida. She was employed in the hospitals and as a spy. She made many a raid inside the enemy€™s lines, displaying remarkable courage, zeal, and fidelity. She was employed by General Hunter, and I think by Generals Stevens and Sherman, and is as deserving of a pension from the Government for her services as any other of its faithful servants.

I am very truly yours,
RUFUS SAXON, Bvt. Brig.-Gen., U.S.A. 

     Rev. Samuel I. May, in his recollections of the anti-slavery conflict, after mentioning the case of an old slave mother, whom he vainly endeavored to assist her son in buying from her master, says:

     €œI did not until four years after know that remarkable woman Harriet, or I might have engaged her services, in the assurance that she would have bought off the old woman without paying for her inalienable right€”her liberty.€�

     Mr. May in another place says of Harriet, that she deserves to be placed first on the list of American heroines, and then proceeds to give a short account of her labors, varying very little from that given in this book.   

To be continued€Â¦ 

The Rescue of Charles Nalle €“  Troy Whig, April 28, 1859.


This republication of Sarah H. Bradford€™s memorable biography of Harriet Tubman is an exact, unaltered and unabridged, reprint of the expanded second edition of 1886. The first edition appeared in 1869. Both were privately printed by Mrs. Bradford for the purpose of raising funds to aid €œthe Moses of her people.€�

Bringing 'stationmaster' Thomas Garrett to life

Posted Tuesday, August 21, 2007

A new sound -- a blacksmith's hammer -- will ring joyful noise as August Quarterly, the nation's oldest African-American festival, wraps a month of activities this weekend.

Retired Delaware National Guard Sgt. Maj. Willis Phelps, one of Delaware's top historical interpreters, will bring his blacksmith gear and plenty of stories Sunday afternoon, for the final day's gospel fest at Tubman-Garrett Park in Wilmington. Although best known for his portrayal of America's first African-American soldiers -- earning him the nickname "Delaware's Buffalo Soldier" -- Phelps will portray a Civil War-era blacksmith.

Phelps bases his blacksmith on several Delawareans in the time of slavery -- most notably a Wilmington Quaker considered under-appreciated by history.

He was Thomas Garrett, the lesser-known namesake of the city park. Like better-known Harriet Tubman, he was a "stationmaster," or leader in the secret Underground Railroad, smuggling slaves to the North.

Garrett is credited with helping more than 2,700 slaves to freedom, according to the Delaware Public Archives.

"No other point along the entire Underground Network handled as much human traffic as did the Garrett house," says the Harriet Tubman Historical Society. "For many fugitive slaves en route to Philadelphia and other points north, the City of Wilmington became known as 'A Last Stop Before Freedom.' "

Like many free black people of the day, a woman who worked for the Garrett family was abducted and sold into slavery. Garrett kept going, despite being convicted of aiding runaway slaves.

He also was an early, grassroots supporter of the first Wilmington civil rights movement, from which came free worship and August Quarterly.

When Bishop Peter Spencer in 1813 established the nation's first independent black church -- defying laws against people of color assembling without white supervision -- Garrett helped pay for land where the church was built.

Now known as the Mother African Union First Colored Methodist Protestant Church, or Mother AU Church, this independent black church ensured people of color the freedoms of religion, speech and assembly for the first time. It started August Quarterly in 1814 to celebrate.

When Garrett died in 1871, black Wilmingtonians reverently carried him from his house to the Quaker meeting house cemetery at Fourth and West, where he is buried.

Garrett's home and way-station to freedom stayed around more than a century later, but was razed in the Bicentennial year, 1976, for a new parking lot.

Garrett is honored in a state historic marker erected about two blocks from his home, and his city duly honored him and Tubman by naming the riverside park that will fill this weekend to celebrate not only religious freedom but also the suffering and sacrifices of past generations who made it possible.

As Phelps on Sunday strikes hammer to hot metal, to make tools or sharpen them as Garrett did, he will demonstrate one of the few 1800s crafts open to black people. And he will tell stories to all who are willing to listen about those who reached freedom here and those who opened their hearts and homes to help them.

People like Thomas Garrett.

Write to Robin Brown at The News Journal, Box 15505, Wilmington, DE 19850; fax 324-5509; call 324-2856; or e-mail backstory@delawareonline.com


Willis Phelps shows Civil War-era blacksmithing to Matthew Holstein, 8, of Bear, last summer at Fort Delaware. Phelps will portray his new blacksmith persona -- drawing on the life of abolitionist Thomas Garrett and others -- from 2 to 5 p.m. Sunday at August Quarterly at Tubman-Garrett Park, Wilmington. News Journal file/BOB HERBERT

Thomas Garrett



Harriet Tubman Day set: Public invited to celebration Saturday

Harriet Tubman

CAMBRIDGE - The Harriet Tubman Organization invites the community to attend the Harriet Tubman Day Annual Celebration on Saturday, at the Elks Lodge, 618 Pine St., from 6 to 10 p.m. The annual banquet and program is sponsored by the Harriet Tubman Organization with Donald Pinder, president, and Evelyn Townsend, vice president.

For historical accuracy, the first Harriet Tubman Day Celebration began in the late 1960s and was arranged by Addie Clash Travers. The day was with a weekend of historical and cultural activities in the city of Cambridge, ending in church services at the historical Bazzel AME Church at Bucktown.

The Harriet Tubman Historical Society, voice/advocate for the preservation and recognition of Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad reached Dorchester County during the early 1980s in search of Harriet Tubman's trail and to reconnect the Maryland & Delaware Underground Railroad. Vivian Abdur-Rahim visited the Dorchester County Public Library and spoke with librarian Gloria Henry.

Ms. Henry led her directly to Addie Clash Travers, Linda Wheatley and members of the Harriet Tubman Association (now the Harriet Tubman Organization). Together, both organizations established a friendship and network that continues today with Evelyn Townsend and officials of the Harriet Tubman Organization.

The Harriet Tubman Historical Society and the Harriet Tubman Association of Dorchester County, joined to sponsor the first National Harriet Tubman Day Celebration. Sen. Joseph R. Biden Jr., D-Del., the late Sen. Bill Roth and Rep. Thomas Carper, D-Del., sponsored Harriet Tubman Day legislation in the United States Congress .

Harriet Tubman Day was proclaimed by President Bush, Congress, more than 20 governors, elected officials, cities, and St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

On March 9, 1990, the Harriet Tubman Historical Society sponsored the Harriet Tubman Day cultural program in Wilmington; March 10, 1990, the first Harriet Tubman Freedom Tour, departed from Wilmington, stopping at Underground Railroad sites in Delaware, crossing the Choptank River, en route to the celebration banquet in Cambridge.

Since the Harriet Tubman Day celebration in the late 1960s and the first National Harriet Tubman Day, March 10, 1990, several major events of interest have been reported:

l $50,000 was awarded to Evelyn Townsend to support the Harriet Tubman Organization "to pay the mortgage on the group's Race Street Headquarters and to conduct major repairs," Mrs. Townsend said as she received the check from Del, Rudy Cane;

l Harriet Tubman Millennium Pilgrimage sponsored by Addie Richburg & the International Network to Freedom, Washington, D.C. May 2000;

l Dedication of the Harriet Tubman Memorial Garden, May 22, 2000, Cambridge;

l Harriet Tubman Highway, a stretch of U.S. 50 was dedicated to Tubman;

l The Harriet Tubman Special Resource Study legislation sponsored by New York Sen. Charles Schumer and Maryland Sen. Paul Sarbanes;

l The Web site is www.HarrietTubmanStudy.org

Gov. George Pataki in 2003 proclaimed March 10 a holiday in the state of New York, initiated by the Black Women Leadership Caucus.

During the 2000 session of the Maryland General Assembly, the African American Tourism Council of Maryland and the Harriet Tubman Organization of Cambridge were successful in getting Senate Joint Resolution 12 passed to designate March 10 every year as Harriet Tubman Day in Maryland. Louis Fields played an important role in establishing the day.

The Harriet Tubman Historical Society wrote letters to the Congressional Black Caucus May 1999, requesting their support for the Harriet Tubman National Holiday. Theme: The Millennium Project for Peace and Reconciliation.

The community is invited to join the Harriet Tubman Organization Saturday and meet descendants and friends at the Harriet Tubman Annual Celebration.

For tickets contact The Harriet Tubman Organization, 424 Race St. or Donald Pinder at (410) 228-0401. Tickets for adults are $20 and include the Harriet Tubman dinner and cultural program; half-price for children under 12.

Daily Banner
Contact Information:
1000 Goodwill Road
P.O. Box 580
Cambridge, MD 21613 

WEBSITE: Newszap.com 
Newsroom:(410) 228-3131

Tubman banquet an inspiration

At the annual Harriet Tubman Day Banquet at Elks Lodge No. 223 Saturday, The Moves of Praise dance company treated guests to an inspirational performance.

By Renee Gilliard, Daily Banner

CAMBRIDGE €” Saturday€™s annual Harriet Tubman Day Banquet gave many guests the opportunity to reflect on the significant contribution made by one of the €œconductors€� of the Underground Railroad.

The annual event at the Elks Lodge No. 223 celebrates the life of Harriet Tubman on the anniversary of her death in 1913.

Emcee Royce Sampson led those in attendance on a journey through Ms. Tubman€™s contributions to the African American community and society as a whole through a variety of speeches and musical performances.

€œWe are so grateful that there were people like Harriet Tubman€Â¦and it makes no difference what color our skin may be, we are all children of God,€� Mr. Sampson shared as he set the spiritual tone for the evening.

The evening began with a selection from the Warriors of Worship choral group and the Waugh Chapel Gospel choir, who got the crowd of nearly 100 clapping in unison to a variety of Christian music.

The Moves of Praise dance company then presented a series of dances, with a range of performers from toddlers to teenagers. Their interpretive movements were inspired by faith and slavery and brought many in attendance to tears.

Evelyn Townsend, a retired teacher, welcomed guests to the event and reinforced a tone of faith saying,

€œ[Harriet Tubman] had faith in God and took her life in her own hands, not letting anything come between her and her faith in God.€�

Guests had the opportunity to dine while listening to the words of the Rev. Lena Dennis, keynote speaker. The reverend is a Dorchester native and pastor of Eastern United Methodist Church in Baltimore.

Her passion for Christianity took her to West Africa where she conducted Bible studies with young adults and taught students about marriage, sex education, and HIV and AIDS.

Vivica Grissom, a theologian from Philadelphia was also in attendance. The event brought her to Cambridge as a descendant of Harriet Tubman.


     Whereas, the members of the Missouri Senate always welcome the opportunity to acknowledge milestone events in the histories of Show-Me State communities and neighborhoods that are dedicated to improving the future by remembering the past; and 

     Whereas, on March 10, 2007, Harriet Tubman Day will be observed in Kansas City, Missouri, as a part of the Women€™s History Month celebration at the Bruce R. Watkins Cultural Heritage Museum; and 

     Whereas, Harriet Ross Tubman is closely associated with the struggle for civil rights and with the Underground Railroad that helped many African Americans win their personal freedom by assisting them on their arduous journey out of slave states during the Civil War; and 

     Whereas, the inaugural Harriet Tubman Day in Kansas City is taking place in large measure because of the steadfast vision and activities of Shirley Johnson; and 

     Whereas, in addition to serving as a memorial to Harriet Tubman, Harriet Tubman Day will entail awards, certificates, ribbons, and the giving of a special Freedom Award to an outstanding and worthy citizen; and 

     Whereas, Harriet Tubman Day also will involve more than one hundred schools, some of whose students will perform selections depicting historical tributes honoring women in history; and 

     Whereas, Harriet Tubman day began in Cambridge, Maryland, in the late 1960s due to the leadership efforts of Addie Clash Travers, who organized Father€™s Day weekend historical and cultural activities that concluded in services at the historic Bazzel AME Church in nearby Bucktown, Maryland; and 

     Whereas, Harriet Tubman Day became a national celebration in 1990 when the Harriet Tubman Historical Society joined with the Harriet Tubman Association of Dorchester County, Maryland, the United States Congress, more than twenty state governors, and many city officials to dedicate March 10th in her honor: 

     Now Therefore, Be It Resolved that we, the members of the Missouri Senate, Ninety-fourth General Assembly, join to applaud the work, goals, and accomplishments associated with the life of Harriet Tubman and to convey to all of those involved this legislative body€™s most hearfelt best wishes for a highly successful Harriet Tubman Day in Kansas City; and 

     Be It Further Resolved that the Secretary of the Senate be instructed to prepare a properly inscribed copy of this resolution for presentation at the Harriet Tubman Day program in Kansas City, Missouri. 

Offered by Senator Coleman

Maida J. Coleman

State of Missouri:  
City of Jefferson: 

I, Michael R. Gibbons, President Pro Tem of the Senate, do hereby certify the above and foregoing to be a full, true and completed copy of Senate Resolution No. 518 offered into and adopted on March 6, 2007, as fully as the same appears of record. 

In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed the seal of the Senate of the State of Missouri this 6th day of March, A.D. 2007.

Michael R. Gibbons
President Pro Tem
94th General Assembly

Sense of Historical Disparity

Harriet Tubman's relatives say she deserves same due as fellow Marylander and abolitionist Frederick Douglass

Sun reporter

Originally published February 28, 2007

"What she did, nobody else did. He [Douglass] had the exposure, while she was leading a secret organization," Pinder said. "Very few people saw her, so she was never known nationally like Douglass. Harriet was an ordinary person who could not read or write, but an extraordinary person who gave all those people hope."

Two new government projects may help redress the imbalance. The state has convened a working group to identify land for a modern Tubman museum in Dorchester County. The National Park Service is considering a Harriet Tubman National Park, either in Maryland or upstate New York.

Maryland can make a strong case for the park.

Born into slavery, Tubman grew up on a plantation in Bucktown owned by the Brodess family. Her youth was spent working fields, hunting, crabbing - and yearning for freedom.

Her first attempt to escape with her brothers ended in failure when they convinced her to turn back. Later, acting on her own, she walked away from the plantation one night. She made it to Pennsylvania, a free state.


Valerie Manokey

 Valerie Manokey
(Sun photo by Doug Kapustin)
Feb 23, 2007

Relatives of Harriet Tubman

Relatives of Harriet Tubman
(Sun photo by Doug Kapustin)
Feb 23, 2007

On The Web

Harriet Ross Tubman Remembrance Day


She made eight or nine expeditions deep into Maryland to rescue scores of slaves, many of them from her family network. According to legend, she carried a musket - both for protection against capture and to keep wavering escapees from turning back and betraying the group.

Employing ruses and disguises, she became known as Moses for delivering some of her people from bondage. She became so successful that slave catchers offered a bounty of at least $12,000 for her apprehension.

She was never caught.

During the Civil War, she worked as a Union spy and nurse. Afterward, she turned to women's rights as her cause and founded a charitable home for the poor and elderly.

Married twice, she died childless in 1913 in Auburn, N.Y., in her early 90s. She never knew her birthday.

In her day, Tubman had her admirers and allies. John Brown, the fierce abolitionist who launched an attack raid on an arsenal in Harpers Ferry, called her "General Tubman."

Although she never returned to live free in Maryland, a cluster of Rosses still reside in the flat terrain of Dorchester County, not far from Bucktown.

Valerie Manokey, 71, is the oldest living family descendant. She bears a striking resemblance to her famous relative and offers an explanation for the blackouts that bedeviled the abolitionist after she was struck in the head as a girl by a white overseer.

"She had God leading the way. When she fell asleep [blacked out], that was God saying, 'Harriet, you need a rest.' That's what I told my children," Manokey said in an interview at a diner in Cambridge. Also at the table were Manokey's sisters Peggy Ross and Betty Lue Ross, and their niece Hawkins, who sat with her 2-year-old daughter, Maya.

Darline Ross Rogers, another keeper of family memories, said Tubman was a superior slingshot shooter and often killed muskrats for group suppers - a dish the family enjoys to this day.

Tubman's relatives continue to draw from and share inspiration from her life story: spirituals sung to warn slaves of approaching danger, quilts containing coded messages hung in Quaker safe houses, how she learned from her father to navigate by the North Star.

Said Rogers: "Things happen when humble people dare to dream."


General Harriet Tubman by Earl Conrad

Queen Victoria Awards Harriet Tubman

   The Diamond Jubilee Medal

     In April 1897 the suffragists of Boston gave a benefit party for Harriet at the Woman€™s Journal parlors. An account in that newspaper says that €œ€Â¦Mr. F.J. Garrison planned the reception, Mrs. Edna Dow Cheney presided, and the survivors of the old abolitionists in this vicinity, with the children of those who have passed on, gathered to do Harriet honor€Â¦.Mrs. Frances E. Harper also was present.€� Harriet€™s visit to Boston was also noted in the Woman€™s Journal of April 17, 1897, under the €œConcerning Women€� column:  €œShe has no pension, although her services during the war were worth hundreds of men to the government€Â¦.€�

     If the Government was slow to recognize her, the British Queen Victoria full well realized Harriet€™s significance. A copy of the Sarah H. Bradford biography had been sent to the Queen and it had been read to her. The Queen sent a Diamond Jubilee medal to Harriet and invited her to come to England. Harriet said of this incident, €œIt was when the Queen had been on the throne 60 years, she sent me the medal. It was a silver medal, about the size of a dollar. It showed the Queen and her family.€� The letter she received with the medal €œwas worn to a shadow, so many people read it.€� 24    (pg. 215) 

Clarke, James B.:   An Hour with Harriet Tubman, passim. The contact of Harriet and the British Queen has been verified by others then and now living, including Mrs. Tatlock, Mrs. Carter and Mrs. Carroll Johnson, of 64 Garrow Street, Auburn, N.Y.


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